Nutrición Hospitalaria 04790 / http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.04790
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Ayuno intermitente: efectos en diversos escenarios clínicos


Alan Espinosa, Aquiles Rubio-Blancas, Anais Camacho-Zamora, Itzel Salcedo-Grajales, Ana Paula Bravo-García, Santiago Rodríguez-Vega, Regina Barrera-Flores, Fernanda Molina-Segui, Abraham May-Hau, Fernando Ferreyro-Bravo, Sophia E. Martínez Vázquez, Edna J. Nava-González, Hugo Antonio Laviada Molina

Prepublicado: 2023-11-27
Publicado: 2024-02-08

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Introducción: los esquemas de ayuno intermitente (AI) proponen limitar la ingestión de alimentos durante periodos específicos. Se han propuesto como estrategia dietoterapéutica para tratar distintas condiciones metabólicas en diversos padecimientos, sin embargo, la heterogeneidad entre cada contexto de ayuno intermitente pudiera generar diferentes resultados en parámetros metabólicos. Objetivo: evaluar la aplicación clínica del ayuno intermitente y discernir si ofrece ventajas sobre otras estrategias tradicionales. Métodos: se formularon preguntas estructuradas (PICO) y la metodología se apegó a las guías establecidas por la declaración PRISMA 2020. Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura científica en las plataformas de PubMed, Cochrane Library y Google Scholar. Resultados: se encontraron 3.962 artículos, de los cuales se incluyeron finalmente 56, eliminando 3.906 trabajos que no contestaban directa o indirectamente las preguntas estructuradas. Conclusiones: frente a las dietas convencionales, los diversos esquemas de AI no generan ventajas ni desventajas en cuanto a pérdida de peso o perfil lipídico, aunque en la variante a días alternos se producen mayores reducciones de insulina a las observadas en la restricción energética continua. La heterogeneidad de las intervenciones y poblaciones estudiadas, así como los comparadores, los desenlaces y el tipo de diseño imposibilitan extrapolar los efectos a todos los escenarios clínicos y generalizar las recomendaciones.

Palabras Clave: Ayuno intermitente. Dietas de restricción energética continua. Metabolismo energético.



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