Nutrición Hospitalaria 04986 /
Resumen| PDF

Artículo Especial

Componentes bioactivos del grano integral y su efecto en la salud

Luis Valladares, Fernando Vio del Río

Prepublicado: 2024-03-14

Logo Descargas   Número de descargas: 21      Logo Visitas   Número de visitas: 1606      Citas   Citas: 0


Las enfermedades no transmisibles representan una carga sanitaria mundial con una prevalencia cada vez mayor. Para prevenir o mejorar este tipo de enfermedades se han sugerido estrategias dietéticas basadas en alimentos saludables. Los cereales son los alimentos más consumidos en todo el mundo y se han descrito efectos preventivos de los cereales integrales sobre la salud. El germen y el salvado de los cereales son abundantes en compuestos bioactivos, incluidos fitoquímicos, vitaminas, minerales y fibras, y estos compuestos son eficaces para prevenir y mejorar las enfermedades no transmisibles. En esta revisión se analiza el contenido y distribución de los componentes primarios de los cereales integrales (trigo, cebada, avena, arroz y trigo negro) y sus fracciones, centrándose en los mecanismos por los que los ácidos fenólicos y la fibra dietética contribuyen a disminuir el riesgo de padecer enfermedades metabólicas, cardiovasculares y cáncer. Existen pruebas claras de los amplios efectos celulares y fisiológicos de los compuestos bioactivos de los granos enteros, que respaldan el valor saludable de una dieta rica en cereales integrales.

Palabras Clave: Grano integral. Fibra dietética, Ácidos fenólicos. Dieta saludable. Enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles.

World Health Organization. Non-communicable diseases WHO. Accessed September 1, 2023. 2. Gordon Patti K, Kohli P. COVID’s Impact on Non-communicable Diseases: What We Do Not Know May Hurt Us. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2022; 24: 829–37.
DOI: 10.1007/s11886-022-01704-6
Xie Y, XuE, Bowe B. Long-term cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19. Nat Med. 2022; 28: 583–90.
DOI: 10.1038/s41591-022-01689-3
Fanzo J, Rudie C, Sigman I, Grinspoon S, Benton TG, Brown, M.E. et al. Sustainable food systems and nutrition in the 21st century: a report from the 22nd annual Harvard Nutrition Obesity Symposium. Am J Clin Nutr. 2022; 115: 18-33.
DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab315
World Health Organization. WHO. Healthy diet. Accessed September 1, 2023.
Cena H, Calder PC. Defining a Healthy Diet: Evidence for The Role of Contemporary Dietary Patterns in Health and Disease. Nutrients. 2020; 12:334.
DOI: 10.3390/nu12020334
Kissock K, Warensjö Lemming E, Axelsson C, Neale E, Beck E. Defining whole-grain foods – does it change estimations of intakes and associations with CVD risk factors: An Australian and Swedish perspective. British Journal of Nutrition. 2021;126: 1725-36.
DOI: 10.1017/S0007114521000453
Hu Y, Willett WC, Manson JAE. Intake of whole grain foods and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women. BMC Med. 2022; 20: 192
DOI: 10.1186/s12916-022-02396-z
Ghanbari-Gohari F, Mousavi SM, Esmaillzadeh A. Consumption of whole grains and risk of type 2 diabetes: A comprehensive systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Food Sci Nutr 2022; 10: 1950-60.
DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.2811
Gaesser GA. Whole Grains, Refined Grains, and Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies. Nutrients. 2020; 12:3756.
DOI: 10.3390/nu12123756
Dorosti M, Jafary Heidarloo A, Bakhshimoghaddam F, Alizadeh M. Whole-grain consumption and its effects on hepatic steatosis and liver enzymes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2020; 123: 328-36.
DOI: 10.1017/S0007114519002769
Slavin J. Whole grains and human health. Nutr Res Rev. 2004;17: 99-110.
DOI: 10.1079/NRR200374
Poutanen KS, Karlund AO, Gomez-Gallego CD, Johansson DO, Scheers NM, Marklinder IM et al. Grains – a major source of sustainable protein for health. Nutr Rev. 2022; 80:1648–63.
DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuab084
Prasadi NVP, Joye IJ. Dietary Fibre from Whole Grains and Their Benefits on Metabolic Health. Nutrients. 2020; 12: 3045;
DOI: 10.3390/nu12103045
van der Kamp JW, Jones JM, Miller KB, Ross AB, Seal CJ, Tan B, Beck EJ. Consensus, Global Definitions of Whole Grain as a Food Ingredient and of Whole-Grain Foods Presented on Behalf of the Whole Grain Initiative. Nutrients. 2022; 14: 138.
DOI: 10.3390/nu14010138
He M, van Dam RM, Rimm E, Hu FB, Qi L. Whole-grain, cereal fiber, bran, and germ intake and the risks of all-cause and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2010; 121: 2162–68.
DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.907360
Kim K, Tsao R, Yang R, Cui S. Phenolic acid profiles and antioxidant activities of wheat bran extracts and the effect of hydrolysis conditions. Food Chem. 2005; 95:466–73.
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.01.032
Adom KK, Liu RH. Antioxidant activity of grains. J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50: 6182–87.
DOI: 10.1021/jf0205099
El-Seedi HR, El-Said AMA, Khalifa SAM, Göransson U, Bohlin L, Borg-Karlson AK, Verpoorte R. Biosynthesis, natural sources, dietary intake, pharmacokinetic properties, and biological activities of hydroxycinnamic acids. J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60:10877–95.
DOI: 10.1021/jf301807g
Zhao,Z, Moghadasian MH. Chemistry, natural sources, dietary intake and pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid: a review. Food Chem. 2008; 109: 691–702.
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.039
Ragaee S, Seetharaman K, Abdel-Aal ESM. The impact of milling and thermal processing on phenolic compounds in cereal grains. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014; 54: 837–849.
DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2011.610906
Khan J, Khan MZ, Ma Y, Meng Y, Mushtaq A, Shen Q, Xue Y. Overview of the Composition of Whole Grains' Phenolic Acids and Dietary Fibre and Their Effect on Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022, 19, 3042.
Călinoiu LF, Vodnar DC. Whole Grains and Phenolic Acids: A Review on Bioactivity, Functionality, Health Benefits and Bioavailability. Nutrients. 2018; 10:1615.
DOI: 10.3390/nu10111615
Sies H, Jones DP. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as pleiotropic physiological signalling agents. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2020; 21: 363–383.
DOI: 10.1038/s41580-020-0230-3
Zeb A. Concept, mechanism, and applications of phenolic antioxidants in foods. J Food Biochem. 2020; 44:e13394.
DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.13394
Wang R, Li M, Brennan MA, Dhital S, Kulasiri D, Brennan CS, Guo B. Complexation of starch and phenolic compounds during food processing and impacts on the release of phenolic compounds. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2023; 22:3185-211.
DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.13180
Health Canada. List of Dietary Fibres Reviewed and Accepted by Health Canada’s Food Directorate— Accessed september 12, 2023: food-nutrition/list-reviewed-accepted-dietary-fibres.html.
Dhingra D, Michael M, Rajput H, Patil RT. Dietary fibre in foods: A review. J. Food Sci Technol. 2012; 49: 255-66.
Li YO, Komarek AR. Dietary fibre basics: Health, nutrition, analysis, and applications. Food Qual Saf. 2017; 1: 47–59.
DOI: 10.1093/fqs/fyx007
Dai FJ, Chau CF. Classification and regulatory perspectives of dietary fiber. J Food Drug Anal. 2017; 25:37-42.
DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2016.09.006
Gartaula G, Dhital S, Netzel G, Flanagan BM, Yakubov GE, Beahan CT, et al. Quantitative structural organisation model for wheat endosperm cell walls: Cellulose as an important constituent. Carbohydr Polym. 2018; 196:199-208.
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.05.041
Prasadi NPV, Joye IJ. Dietary Fibre from Whole Grains and Their Benefits on Metabolic Health. Nutrients. 2020; 10:3045.
Andersson AAM, Lampi AM, Nyström L, Piironen V, Li L, Ward JL et al. Phytochemical and dietary fiber components in barley varieties in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screen. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56: 9767-76.
DOI: 10.1021/jf802037f
Messia MC, Candigliota T, De Arcangelis E, Marconi E. Arabinoxylans and β-glucans assessment in cereals. Ital J Food Sci. 2017; 29: 112-122.
Sterna V, Zute S, Jansone I, Kantane I. Chemical composition of covered and naked spring barley varieties and their potential for food production. Polish J Food Nutr Sci. 2017; 67: 151–8.
DOI: 10.1515/pjfns-2016-0019
Vasanthan T, Temelli F. Grain fractionation technologies for cereal beta-glucan concentration. Food Res Int. 2008: 41: 876-81.
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.07.022
Newman CW, Newman RK, Fastnaught CE. Barley. In Whole Grains and Their Bioactives: Composition and Health; Johnson, J., Wallace, T., Eds.; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2019; pp. 135-167.
Vitaglione P, Napolitano A, Fogliano V. Cereal dietary fibre: A natural functional ingredient to deliver phenolic compounds into the gut. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2008; 19: 451- 63.
DOI: 10.1016/j.tifs.2008.02.005
Andersson R, Fransson G, Tietjen M, Åman P. Content and molecular-weight distribution of dietary fiber components in whole-grain rye flour and bread. J Agric Food Chem. 2009: 57; 2004-8.
DOI: 10.1021/jf801280f
Ciudad-Mulero M, Fernández-Ruiz V, Matallana-González MC, Morales P. Dietary fiber sources and human benefits: The case study of cereal and pseudocereals. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2019; 90: 83–134.
DOI: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2019.02.002
Rakha A, Åman P, Andersson R. Characterisation of dietary fibre components in rye products. Food Chem. 2010: 119: 859–67.
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.090
Prasad VSS, Hymavathi A, Babu VR, Longvah T. Nutritional composition in relation to glycemic potential of popular Indian rice varieties. Food Chem. 2018; 238: 29–34.
DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.138
Fernando B. Rice as a source of fibre. J Rice Res. 2013; 1: 1- 4.
DOI: 10.4172/2375-4338.1000e101
Lzydorczyk MS, McMillan T, Bazin S, Kletke J, Dushnicky L, Dexter J. Canadian buckwheat. A unique, useful and under-utilized crop. Can J Plant Sci. 2013; 94: 509–24.
DOI: 10.4141/cjps2013-075
Williams BA, Mikkelsen D, Flanagan BM, Gidley MJ. “Dietary fibre”: Moving beyond the “soluble/insoluble” classification for monogastric nutrition, with an emphasis on humans and pigs. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 2019; 10, 45. DOI
DOI: 10.1186/s40104-019-0350-9
DOI: 10.1186/s40104-019-0350-9
Soliman GA. Dietary Fiber, Atherosclerosis, and Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients. 2019; 11; 1155.
DOI: 10.3390/nu11051155
Stephen AM, Champ MM, Cloran SJ, Fleith M, van Lieshout L, Mejborn H, Burley VJ. Dietary fibre in Europe: Current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health. Nutr Res Rev. 2017; 30: 149–90.
DOI: 10.1017/S095442241700004X
Gemen R , Vries JF, Slavin JL. Relationship between molecular structure of cereal dietary fiber and health effects: Focus on glucose/insulin response and gut health. Nutr Rev. 2011; 69: 22–33.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00357.x
Ray TK, Mansell KM, Knight LC, Malmud LS, Owen OE, Boden G. Long-term effects of dietary fiber on glucose tolerance and gastric emptying in noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983; 37: 376–81.
DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/37.3.376
Dimitriadis GD, Maratou E, Kountouri A, Board M, Lambadiari V. Regulation of Postabsorptive and Postprandial Glucose Metabolism by Insulin-Dependent and Insulin-Independent Mechanisms: An Integrative Approach. Nutrients. 2021; 13: 159.
DOI: 10.3390/nu13010159
Weickert MO, Pfeiffer AFH. Impact of Dietary Fiber Consumption on Insulin Resistance and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes. J. Nutr. 2018;148: 7–12.
Papakonstantinou E, Oikonomou C, Nychas G, Dimitriadis GD. Effects of Diet, Lifestyle, Chrononutrition and Alternative Dietary Interventions on Postprandial Glycemia and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients. 2022; 14: 823.
DOI: 10.3390/nu14040823
Flint HJ, Duncan SH, Scott KP, Louis P. Links between diet, gut microbiota composition and gut metabolism. Proc Nutr Soc. 2015; 74:13–22.
DOI: 10.1017/S0029665114001463
Jefferson A, Adolphus K. The Effects of Increasing Intake of Intact Wheat Fibre or Wheat Bran on Gut Microbiota Diversity: a Systematic Review. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2019; 6: 33.
DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2019.00033
Vetrani C, Costabile G, Luongo D, Naviglio D, Rivellese AA, Riccardi G, et al. Effects of whole-grain cereal foods on plasma short chain fatty acid concentrations in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Nutrition. 2016; 32: 217–21.
DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2015.08.006
Nilsson AC, Ostman E, Preston T, Björck I. Effects of GI vs content of cereal fibre of the evening meal on glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardized breakfast. EJCN. 2008; 62: 712–720.
DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602784
Kespohl M, Vachharajani N, Luu M, Harb H, Pautz S, Wolff S. et al. The Microbial Metabolite Butyrate Induces Expression of Th1-Associated Factors in CD4+ T Cells. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:1036.
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01036
Cuevas-Sierra, A ,; Ramos-Lopez, O.; Riezu-Boj, J.I.; Milagro,F.I.; Martinez. J.A. Diet, gut microbiota, and obesity: links with host genetics and epigenetics and potential applications. Advances in Nutrition. 2019, 10(1), S17-S30.
Salvi PS, Cowles RA. Butyrate and the Intestinal Epithelium: Modulation of Proliferation and Inflammation in Homeostasis and Disease. Cells. 2021;10: 7:1775.
DOI: 10.3390/cells10071775
Tabat MW, Marques TM, Markgren M, Löfvendahl L, Brummer RJ, Wall R. Acute Effects of Butyrate on Induced Hyperpermeability and Tight Junction Protein Expression in Human Colonic Tissues. Biomolecules. 2020; 10:766.
DOI: 10.3390/biom10050766

Artículos Relacionados:

Trabajo Original: Effects of oat bran and nutrition counseling on the lipid and glucose profile and anthropometric parameters of hypercholesterolemia patients

Simone Raimondi De Souza , Gláucia Maria Moraes De Oliveira , Ronir Raggio Luiz , Glorimar Rosa

Publicado: 2016-02-17 /

Trabajo Original: Incremento en el consumo de fibra dietética complementario al tratamiento del síndrome metabólico

Iván Antonio García-Montalvo , Sheila Yamile Méndez Díaz , Noyoltzin Aguirre Guzmán , Marco Antonio Sánchez Medina , Diana Matías Pérez , Eduardo Pérez Campos

Publicado: 2017-08-14 /

Trabajo Original: Nutrición y gastronomía en la comunidad de Cantabria

María del Mar Castañar García Gómez , Coral Montalbán , Fabiola Cruz Tamayo

Publicado: 2019-05-17 /

Trabajo Original: New Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents in Costa Rica

Hilda Patricia Núñez-Rivas , Ileana Holst-Schumacher , Natalia Campos-Saborío

Publicado: 2019-05-20 /

Trabajo Original: Matriz láctea: beneficios nutricionales y sanitarios de la interrelación entre sus nutrientes

Aránzazu Aparicio , Ana María Lorenzo-Mora , Laura Bermejo López , Elena Rodríguez-Rodríguez , Rosa M. Ortega , Ana M. López-Sobaler

Publicado: 2020-09-22 /

Trabajo Original: The importance of knowing and listening to all those involved in the design and use of nutrition mobile apps. Getting to know the Great GApp

Guillermo Molina-Recio , Rafael Molina-Luque , Manuel Romero-Saldaña

Publicado: 2020-10-07 /

Editorial: Alimentos ultraprocesados: impacto sobre las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles

Pau Talens Oliag

Publicado: 2021-01-22 /

Trabajo Original: Efecto del consumo de la fibra dietética en la expresión cuantitativa del receptor de butirato GPR43 en colon de ratas

Publicado: 2021-06-30 /

Revisión: Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health

Publicado: 2021-09-28 /

Trabajo Original: The Food Dome; dietary guidelines for Arab countries

Publicado: 2021-09-28 /

Trabajo Original: Relationship between body mass index with dietary fiber intake and skinfolds-differences among bodybuilders who train during morning and nocturne period

Publicado: 2021-09-29 /

Revisión: Programas para mejorar el contenido nutricional de las fiambreras (loncheras); revisión sistemática

Publicado: 2021-10-27 /

Trabajo Original: Addition of dietary fiber sources to shakes reduces postprandial glycemia and alters food intake

Publicado: 2021-11-18 /

Revisión: Indicaciones de diferentes tipos de fibra en distintas patologías

Publicado: 2021-11-30 /

Trabajo Original: The association between dietary fiber and infertility among US Women: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2018

Man-Shuang Chen , Don-Ying Wang , Hui-Yu Gong , Hui-Min Zhang , Jie Gao , Song-Ping Luo

Publicado: 2022-01-27 /

Trabajo Original: Association of coffee intake and its polyphenols with mammographic findings in women who visited the Brazilian Public Health Service

Ayana Florencio de Meneses , Ana Luiza de Rezende Ferreira Mendes , Daianne Cristina Rocha , Helena Alves de Carvalho Sampaio , Antônio Augusto Ferreira Carioca , Luis Gonzaga Porto Pinheiro , Paulo Henrique Diógenes Vasques , Ilana Nogueira Bezerra , Leandro Teixeira Cacau

Publicado: 2022-01-28 /

Trabajo Original: The Quality Index for Nutrition in Nursing Homes (QUINN). A new tool for evaluating diet quality in long-term care homes

Ángela Hernández-Ruiz , Melisa Muñoz-Ruiz , Miguel Ruiz-Canela , Esther Molina-Montes , María José Soto-Méndez , Ángel Gil , María Dolores Ruiz-López , Reyes Artacho Martín-Lagos , José Antonio López-Trigo , Leonardo José Villavicencio-Campos , Rosa López-Mongil

Publicado: 2022-06-10 /

Trabajo Original: Mejoría de la adherencia a la dieta mediterránea en preescolares asistentes al jardín infantil

Emilia Jobet Bustos , María Inés Loyola Alegría , Carolina Ortiz Castro , Attilio Rigotti , Guadalupe Echeverría , Claudia Mallea , Salesa Barja

Publicado: 2023-04-12 /

Trabajo Original: Low-protein diet supplemented with inulin lowers protein-bound toxin levels in patients with stage 3b-5 chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled study

Liyang Chang , Rongrong Tian , Zili Guo , Luchen He , Yanjuan Li , Yao Xu , Hongmei Zhang

Publicado: 2023-02-15 /

Artículos más populares

Revisión: Relación entre la dieta, aspectos nutricionales y la calidad del sueño en población pediátrica

.La relación entre la dieta y el sueño ha sido esc...

Publicado: 2023-06-08

Artículo Especial: Consenso del grupo de trabajo de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria de SENPE (GTTCA-SENPE). Evaluación y tratamiento médico-nutricional en la anorexia nerviosa. Actualización 2023

La anorexia nerviosa (AN) es una enfermedad de ori...

Publicado: 2024-02-06

Editorial: ¿Por qué debemos incorporar la determinación del ángulo de fase por impedancia bioeléctrica a nuestra práctica habitual en nutrición clínica?

Publicado: 2024-03-18

Una cookie o galleta informática es un pequeño archivo de información que se guarda en su navegador cada vez que visita nuestra página web. La utilidad de las cookies es guardar el historial de su actividad en nuestra página web, de manera que, cuando la visite nuevamente, ésta pueda identificarle y configurar el contenido de la misma en base a sus hábitos de navegación, identidad y preferencias. Las cookies pueden ser aceptadas, rechazadas, bloqueadas y borradas, según desee. Ello podrá hacerlo mediante las opciones disponibles en la presente ventana o a través de la configuración de su navegador, según el caso. En caso de que rechace las cookies no podremos asegurarle el correcto funcionamiento de las distintas funcionalidades de nuestra página web. Más información en el apartado “POLÍTICA DE COOKIES” de nuestra página web.