Nutrición Hospitalaria 04986 / http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.04986
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Artículo Especial

Componentes bioactivos del grano integral y su efecto en la salud


Luis Valladares, Fernando Vio del Río

Prepublicado: 2024-03-14

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Las enfermedades no transmisibles representan una carga sanitaria mundial con una prevalencia cada vez mayor. Para prevenir o mejorar este tipo de enfermedades se han sugerido estrategias dietéticas basadas en alimentos saludables. Los cereales son los alimentos más consumidos en todo el mundo y se han descrito efectos preventivos de los cereales integrales sobre la salud. El germen y el salvado de los cereales son abundantes en compuestos bioactivos, incluidos fitoquímicos, vitaminas, minerales y fibras, y estos compuestos son eficaces para prevenir y mejorar las enfermedades no transmisibles. En esta revisión se analiza el contenido y distribución de los componentes primarios de los cereales integrales (trigo, cebada, avena, arroz y trigo negro) y sus fracciones, centrándose en los mecanismos por los que los ácidos fenólicos y la fibra dietética contribuyen a disminuir el riesgo de padecer enfermedades metabólicas, cardiovasculares y cáncer. Existen pruebas claras de los amplios efectos celulares y fisiológicos de los compuestos bioactivos de los granos enteros, que respaldan el valor saludable de una dieta rica en cereales integrales.

Palabras Clave: Grano integral. Fibra dietética, Ácidos fenólicos. Dieta saludable. Enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles.



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